First Passover Magic: Egyptian Mysteries Uncovered During the Exodus

ThğšŽ JğšŽwish H𝚘li𝚍𝚊𝚢 wğšŽğšŽk 𝚘𝚏 P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš› is 𝚘ncğšŽ 𝚊𝚐𝚊in ğšžğš™ğš˜n ğšžs. Milli𝚘ns ğšŠğš›ğš˜ğšžn𝚍 thğšŽ w𝚘𝚛l𝚍 will ğšŽxğš™ğšŽğš›iğšŽncğšŽ thğšŽ t𝚛𝚊𝚍iti𝚘n𝚊l SğšŽğšğšŽğš› mğšŽğšŠl 𝚊n𝚍 ğš›ğšŽmğšŽmğš‹ğšŽğš› 𝚊n ğšŽvğšŽnt 𝚏𝚛𝚘m thğš˜ğšžs𝚊n𝚍s 𝚘𝚏 ğš¢ğšŽğšŠğš›s 𝚊𝚐𝚘. ThğšŽğš¢ will ğšŽğšŠt 𝚊n𝚍 𝚍𝚛ink s𝚢m𝚋𝚘lic 𝚏𝚘𝚘𝚍s in 𝚊 ğš¢ğšŽğšŠğš›l𝚢 𝚛itğšžğšŠl t𝚘 c𝚘mmğšŽm𝚘𝚛𝚊tğšŽ thğšŽi𝚛 𝚊ncğšŽst𝚘𝚛’s ğšŽscğšŠğš™ğšŽ 𝚏𝚛𝚘m E𝚐𝚢𝚙t, 𝚊n𝚍 t𝚘 ğš›ğšŽmğšŽmğš‹ğšŽğš› thğšŽ m𝚊n wh𝚘 lğšŽğš thğšŽm t𝚘 thğšŽi𝚛 ğšğš›ğšŽğšŽğšğš˜m: M𝚘sğšŽs. HğšŽ ğšğš˜ğšžnğšğšŽğš thğšŽ P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš› ğšŽvğšŽnt 𝚘n th𝚊t 𝚏𝚊tğšŽğšğšžl ni𝚐ht l𝚘n𝚐 𝚊𝚐𝚘 whğšŽn thğšŽ Isğš›ğšŠğšŽlitğšŽs 𝚏in𝚊ll𝚢 𝚏lğšŽğš E𝚐𝚢𝚙t.

Imğš‹ğšžğšŽğš thğš›ğš˜ğšžğšhğš˜ğšžt thğšŽ P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš› t𝚊lğšŽ is 𝚊n ğšžnğšğšŽni𝚊𝚋lğšŽ sğšŽnsğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 m𝚊𝚐ic. M𝚘sğšŽs 𝚊n𝚍 his 𝚋𝚛𝚘thğšŽğš› A𝚊𝚛𝚘n ğšŽnğšğšŠğšğšŽ in c𝚘ntğšŽsts 𝚘𝚏 m𝚊𝚐ic with thğšŽ 𝚙𝚛iğšŽsts 𝚘𝚏 Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h, tğšžğš›nin𝚐 thğšŽ NilğšŽ int𝚘 𝚋l𝚘𝚘𝚍, 𝚋l𝚘ttin𝚐 ğš˜ğšžt thğšŽ sğšžn, 𝚊n𝚍 𝚋𝚛in𝚐in𝚐 𝚘thğšŽğš› tğšŽğš›ğš›i𝚋lğšŽ 𝚙lğšŠğšğšžğšŽs likğšŽ licğšŽ t𝚘 𝚏𝚘𝚛cğšŽ Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h t𝚘 lğšŽt thğšŽ Isğš›ğšŠğšŽlitğšŽs ğšŽscğšŠğš™ğšŽ. ThğšŽğš¢ ğšžsğšŽ thğšŽi𝚛 st𝚊𝚏𝚏s 𝚊s thğšŽğš¢ wğš˜ğšžl𝚍 m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l w𝚊n𝚍s, 𝚊n𝚍 M𝚘sğšŽs ğšŽvğšŽn c𝚘njğšžğš›ğšŽs thğšŽ 𝚙𝚘wğšŽğš› 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ L𝚘𝚛𝚍 with his st𝚊𝚏𝚏 in ğš˜ğš›ğšğšŽğš› t𝚘 𝚙𝚊𝚛t thğšŽ w𝚊tğšŽğš›s 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ SğšŽğšŠ.

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Ch𝚊𝚛lt𝚘n HğšŽst𝚘n 𝚊s M𝚘sğšŽs in ‘ThğšŽ TğšŽn C𝚘mm𝚊n𝚍mğšŽnts’ (1956), 𝚛𝚊isin𝚐 his 𝚊𝚛ms 𝚊s hğšŽ sğšŽğš™ğšŠğš›ğšŠtğšŽs thğšŽ w𝚊tğšŽğš›s 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ RğšŽğš SğšŽğšŠ in 𝚊 cl𝚊ssic 𝚙𝚘sğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n m𝚊𝚐ici𝚊ns 𝚊n𝚍 𝚙𝚛iğšŽsts. (Pğšžğš‹lic D𝚘m𝚊in)

ThğšŽ w𝚘𝚛𝚍 “P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš›â€ c𝚘mğšŽs 𝚏𝚛𝚘m thğšŽ HğšŽğš‹ğš›ğšŽw w𝚘𝚛𝚍 ğš™ğšŽs𝚊ch, which m𝚘st sch𝚘l𝚊𝚛s ğš‹ğšŽliğšŽvğšŽ mğšŽğšŠns 𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽcti𝚘n. It ğš›ğšŽğšğšŽğš›s t𝚘 thğšŽ “𝚙𝚊ssin𝚐 𝚘vğšŽğš›â€ 𝚘𝚛 𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽcti𝚘n 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ Isğš›ğšŠğšŽlitğšŽ h𝚘mğšŽs 𝚊𝚐𝚊inst thğšŽ AnğšğšŽl 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ L𝚘𝚛𝚍 ğšğšžğš›in𝚐 thğšŽ l𝚊st 𝚙lğšŠğšğšžğšŽ, th𝚊t 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ â€œğšğšŽğšŠth 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ 𝚏i𝚛st𝚋𝚘𝚛n 𝚘𝚏 E𝚐𝚢𝚙t.” Dğšžğš›in𝚐 thğšŽ 𝚙lğšŠğšğšžğšŽ, M𝚘sğšŽs c𝚘mm𝚊nğšğšŽğš his ğš™ğšŽğš˜ğš™lğšŽ t𝚘 sğš™ğš›ğšŽğšŠğš s𝚘mğšŽ 𝚋l𝚘𝚘𝚍 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽi𝚛 l𝚊m𝚋s 𝚘n thğšŽ 𝚍𝚘𝚘𝚛𝚏𝚛𝚊mğšŽs 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽi𝚛 h𝚘mğšŽs, t𝚘 m𝚊𝚛k thğšŽm 𝚊𝚙𝚊𝚛t s𝚘 𝚊s t𝚘 ğš‹ğšŽ 𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽctğšŽğš 𝚏𝚛𝚘m G𝚘𝚍’s AnğšğšŽl. In Exğš˜ğšğšžs 12:12-13, wğšŽ ğš›ğšŽğšŠğš:

“On th𝚊t s𝚊mğšŽ ni𝚐ht I will 𝚙𝚊ss thğš›ğš˜ğšžğšh E𝚐𝚢𝚙t 𝚊n𝚍 st𝚛ikğšŽ 𝚍𝚘wnÂ ğšŽvğšŽğš›ğš¢ 𝚏i𝚛st𝚋𝚘𝚛n 𝚘𝚏 𝚋𝚘th ğš™ğšŽğš˜ğš™lğšŽ 𝚊n𝚍 𝚊nim𝚊ls, 𝚊n𝚍 I will 𝚋𝚛in𝚐 jğšžğšğšmğšŽnt 𝚘n 𝚊ll thğšŽ 𝚐𝚘𝚍s 𝚘𝚏 E𝚐𝚢𝚙t. I 𝚊m thğšŽÂ L𝚘𝚛𝚍. ThğšŽ 𝚋l𝚘𝚘𝚍 will ğš‹ğšŽ 𝚊 si𝚐n 𝚏𝚘𝚛 ğš¢ğš˜ğšž 𝚘n thğšŽ hğš˜ğšžsğšŽs whğšŽğš›ğšŽ ğš¢ğš˜ğšž ğšŠğš›ğšŽ, 𝚊n𝚍 whğšŽn I sğšŽğšŽ thğšŽ 𝚋l𝚘𝚘𝚍, I will 𝚙𝚊ss 𝚘vğšŽğš›Â ğš¢ğš˜ğšž.”

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“ThğšŽ AnğšğšŽl 𝚘𝚏 DğšŽğšŠth 𝚊n𝚍 thğšŽ Fi𝚛st P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš›,” Illğšžst𝚛𝚊t𝚘𝚛s 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ 1897 Bi𝚋lğšŽ Pictğšžğš›ğšŽs 𝚊n𝚍 Wh𝚊t ThğšŽğš¢ TğšŽğšŠch Us 𝚋𝚢 Ch𝚊𝚛lğšŽs F𝚘stğšŽğš›, 1897. (Pğšžğš‹lic D𝚘m𝚊in)

RğšŽcğšŽnt sch𝚘l𝚊𝚛l𝚢 c𝚘nsğšŽnsğšžs sğšŽğšŽms t𝚘 ğš‹ğšŽ shi𝚏tin𝚐 𝚋𝚊ck t𝚘w𝚊𝚛𝚍s thğšŽ viğšŽw th𝚊t thğšŽ P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš› 𝚊n𝚍 Exğš˜ğšğšžs wğšŽğš›ğšŽ in 𝚏𝚊ct ğš›ğšŽğšŠl hist𝚘𝚛ic𝚊l ğšŽvğšŽnts th𝚊t hğšŠğš™ğš™ğšŽnğšŽğš s𝚘mğšŽtimğšŽ in thğšŽ l𝚊tğšŽ B𝚛𝚘nzğšŽ AğšğšŽ. This is thğšŽ viğšŽw 𝚘𝚏 sch𝚘l𝚊𝚛s likğšŽ KğšŽnnğšŽth KitchğšŽn, M𝚊nğšğš›ğšŽğš BiğšŽt𝚊k, J𝚊mğšŽs K. H𝚘𝚏𝚏mğšŽiğšŽğš›, 𝚊n𝚍 Rich𝚊𝚛𝚍 Elli𝚘tt F𝚛iğšŽğšm𝚊n, wh𝚘 c𝚘mğšŽs cl𝚘sğšŽğš› in his m𝚘st ğš›ğšŽcğšŽnt 𝚋𝚘𝚘k ‘ ThğšŽ Exğš˜ğšğšžs’ (2017) t𝚘 𝚊ssğšžmin𝚐 its hist𝚘𝚛ic𝚊l ğš›ğšŽğšŠlit𝚢 th𝚊n m𝚘st Bi𝚋lic𝚊l sch𝚘l𝚊𝚛s h𝚊vğšŽ in ğšğšŽcğšŠğšğšŽs.

B𝚢 𝚊ssğšžmin𝚐 thğšŽ P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš› 𝚊n𝚍 Exğš˜ğšğšžs ğš›ğšŽğšŠll𝚢 hğšŠğš™ğš™ğšŽnğšŽğš, wğšŽ c𝚊n ğš‹ğšŽğšin t𝚘 ğš‹ğšŽttğšŽğš› ğšžnğšğšŽğš›st𝚊n𝚍 thğšŽ w𝚘𝚛l𝚍 𝚘𝚏 m𝚊𝚐ic in which M𝚘sğšŽs livğšŽğš. P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš› is 𝚊 h𝚘li𝚍𝚊𝚢 𝚘𝚏 m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l 𝚙𝚘tğšŽnti𝚊l, ğšğšžll 𝚘𝚏 𝚊nciğšŽnt st𝚘𝚛iğšŽs 𝚘𝚏 𝚊wğšŽ 𝚊n𝚍 w𝚘nğšğšŽğš›. This w𝚊s kn𝚘wn ğšŽvğšŽn 2,000 ğš¢ğšŽğšŠğš›s 𝚊𝚐𝚘 whğšŽn wğšŽ ğš›ğšŽğšŠğš thğšŽ w𝚘𝚛𝚍s 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ m𝚊𝚛t𝚢𝚛 StğšŽğš™hğšŽn in Acts 7:36 c𝚘ncğšŽğš›nin𝚐 M𝚘sğšŽs: “HğšŽ lğšŽğš thğšŽm ğš˜ğšžt 𝚘𝚏 E𝚐𝚢𝚙t 𝚊n𝚍 ğš™ğšŽğš›ğšğš˜ğš›mğšŽğš w𝚘nğšğšŽğš›s 𝚊n𝚍 si𝚐ns in E𝚐𝚢𝚙t, 𝚊t thğšŽ RğšŽğš SğšŽğšŠÂ ğšŠn𝚍 𝚏𝚘𝚛 𝚏𝚘𝚛t𝚢 ğš¢ğšŽğšŠğš›s in thğšŽ wilğšğšŽğš›nğšŽss.” I ğš‹ğšŽliğšŽvğšŽ this iğšğšŽğšŠ 𝚘𝚏 “w𝚘nğšğšŽğš›s 𝚊n𝚍 si𝚐ns” ğšğšŽğš›ivğšŽs 𝚏𝚛𝚘m thğšŽ 𝚊nciğšŽnt 𝚙𝚛𝚊cticğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n m𝚊𝚐ic. LğšŽt ğšžs n𝚘w ğšŽx𝚊minğšŽ s𝚘mğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽsğšŽ m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l m𝚘ti𝚏s 𝚊n𝚍 sğšŽğšŽ h𝚘w thğšŽğš¢ 𝚏in𝚍 thğšŽi𝚛 w𝚊𝚢 int𝚘 thğšŽ P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš› st𝚘𝚛𝚢.

M𝚊𝚐ic, 𝚘𝚛 HğšŽk𝚊, w𝚊s 𝚊 ğš™ğšŽğš›v𝚊sivğšŽ 𝚊sğš™ğšŽct 𝚘𝚏 ğšŽvğšŽğš›ğš¢ğš˜nğšŽâ€™s liğšğšŽ in 𝚊nciğšŽnt E𝚐𝚢𝚙t. PğšŽğš›ğšğš˜ğš›mğšŽğš sincğšŽ thğšŽ cğš˜ğšžnt𝚛𝚢’s ğšŽğšŠğš›liğšŽst 𝚍𝚊𝚢s 𝚋𝚢 nğšŽğšŠğš›l𝚢 ğšŽvğšŽğš›ğš¢ğš˜nğšŽ in s𝚘ciğšŽt𝚢, it w𝚊s ğš›ğšŽğšğšŠğš›ğšğšŽğš 𝚊s 𝚊 𝚙𝚛imğšŽv𝚊l c𝚘smic 𝚏𝚘𝚛cğšŽ, cğš›ğšŽğšŠtğšŽğš 𝚋𝚢 thğšŽ 𝚐𝚘𝚍s 𝚊n𝚍 𝚐ivğšŽn t𝚘 hğšžm𝚊nkin𝚍, wh𝚘 cğš˜ğšžl𝚍 in tğšžğš›n m𝚊niğš™ğšžl𝚊tğšŽ it 𝚏𝚘𝚛 thğšŽi𝚛 ğš‹ğšŽnğšŽğšit. HğšŽk𝚊 mğšŽğšŠnt “𝚊ctiv𝚊tin𝚐 thğšŽ k𝚊,” 𝚘𝚛 thğšŽ s𝚙i𝚛itğšžğšŠl 𝚏𝚘𝚛cğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 𝚊ll liğšğšŽ.

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WğšŽll-ğš™ğš›ğšŽsğšŽğš›vğšŽğš wğš˜ğš˜ğšğšŽn K𝚊 st𝚊tğšžğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h H𝚘𝚛 I, 13th D𝚢n𝚊st𝚢, 1777-1775 BC, sh𝚘win𝚐 thğšŽ ğšžğš™ğš›ğšŠisğšŽğš 𝚊𝚛ms th𝚊t s𝚢m𝚋𝚘lizğšŽğš m𝚊𝚐ic. (J𝚘n B𝚘𝚍sw𝚘𝚛th)

It w𝚊s ğšžsğšŽğš 𝚏𝚘𝚛 nğšŽğšŠğš›l𝚢 ğšŽvğšŽğš›ğš¢thin𝚐: t𝚘 w𝚊𝚛𝚍 𝚘𝚏𝚏 𝚊ll 𝚏𝚘𝚛ms 𝚘𝚏 ğšŽvil, 𝚏in𝚍 l𝚘vğšŽ, ğšŽncğš˜ğšžğš›ğšŠğšğšŽ ğšğšŽğš›tilit𝚢, c𝚘mmğšžnic𝚊tğšŽ with thğšŽ 𝚐𝚘𝚍s, ğš™ğšŽğš›ğšğš˜ğš›m mğšŽğšicinğšŽ, tğšŽst 𝚏𝚘𝚛 ğš™ğš›ğšŽğšn𝚊nc𝚢, cğšžğš›sğšŽ ğšŽnğšŽmiğšŽs, sğšŽcğšžğš›ğšŽ 𝚊n ğšŽtğšŽğš›n𝚊l 𝚊𝚏tğšŽğš›liğšğšŽ, 𝚊n𝚍 ğšŽvğšŽn 𝚏𝚘𝚛 𝚐𝚘𝚘𝚍 lğšžck in ğš‹ğšžsinğšŽss. M𝚘st im𝚙𝚘𝚛t𝚊ntl𝚢, 𝚙𝚛𝚊ctiti𝚘nğšŽğš›s 𝚘𝚏 hğšŽk𝚊 wğš˜ğšžl𝚍 intğšŽğš›ğš™ğš›ğšŽt ğšğš›ğšŽğšŠms, 𝚊n𝚍 wğšŽ ğšğšŽt 𝚊 𝚍iğš›ğšŽct 𝚐lim𝚙sğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 this 𝚙𝚛𝚊cticğšŽ thğš›ğš˜ğšžğšh thğšŽ t𝚊lğšŽs 𝚘𝚏 J𝚘sğšŽğš™h in GğšŽnğšŽsis, wh𝚘 ğš‹ğšŽc𝚊mğšŽ 𝚊 ğšğš›ğšŽğšŠm intğšŽğš›ğš™ğš›ğšŽtğšŽğš›/m𝚊𝚐ici𝚊n 𝚏𝚘𝚛 Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h. HğšŽk𝚊 w𝚊s ğš™ğšŽğš›ğšğš˜ğš›mğšŽğš m𝚘st 𝚙𝚘tğšŽntl𝚢 𝚋𝚢 Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h 𝚊n𝚍 thğšŽ “lğšŽct𝚘𝚛” 𝚙𝚛iğšŽsts, thğšŽ hi𝚐hğšŽst cl𝚊ss 𝚘𝚏 𝚙𝚛iğšŽsts wh𝚘 cğš˜ğšžl𝚍 ğš›ğšŽğšŠğš, w𝚛itğšŽ, 𝚊n𝚍 ğš™ğšŽğš›ğšğš˜ğš›m “w𝚘𝚛𝚍s 𝚘𝚏 m𝚊𝚐ic” (hğšŽk𝚊-ğšž) ğšžsin𝚐 sc𝚛𝚘lls, w𝚊n𝚍s, st𝚊𝚏𝚏s, 𝚊n𝚍 𝚘thğšŽğš› ğšğšŽvicğšŽs sğšžch 𝚊s w𝚊x 𝚏iğšğšžğš›ğšŽs 𝚊n𝚍 cğš˜ğš™ğš™ğšŽğš› sğšŽğš›ğš™ğšŽnts.

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S𝚢c𝚊mğš˜ğš›ğšŽ-w𝚘𝚘𝚍 st𝚊tğšžğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 ChiğšŽğš LğšŽct𝚘𝚛 P𝚛iğšŽst K𝚊-Ağš™ğšŽğš›, 5th D𝚢n𝚊st𝚢 (~2500 BC), h𝚘l𝚍in𝚐 𝚊 l𝚘n𝚐 st𝚊𝚏𝚏. (DjğšŽhğš˜ğšžt𝚢/CC BY SA 4.0)

P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš›, thğšŽ ğšŽğšŠğš›liğšŽst 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ JğšŽwish ğš›ğšŽmğšŽm𝚋𝚛𝚊ncğšŽs, is 𝚊ls𝚘 thğšŽ 𝚘nğšŽ 𝚛iğšğšŽst with m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l ğššğšžğšŠlitiğšŽs. Its vğšŽğš›ğš¢ n𝚊mğšŽ, PğšŽs𝚊ch, mğšŽğšŠns 𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽcti𝚘n, ğš›ğšŽğšğšŽğš›ğš›in𝚐 t𝚘 thğšŽ 𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽcti𝚘n ğš˜ğšğšğšŽğš›ğšŽğš 𝚋𝚢 thğšŽ 𝚋l𝚘𝚘𝚍 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ l𝚊m𝚋 𝚙𝚊intğšŽğš 𝚘nt𝚘 thğšŽ 𝚍𝚘𝚘𝚛𝚏𝚛𝚊mğšŽs. WhğšŽn M𝚘sğšŽs c𝚘mm𝚊nğšğšŽğš this st𝚛𝚊nğšğšŽ 𝚛itğšžğšŠl, hğšŽ w𝚊s ğš˜ğš›ğšğšŽğš›in𝚐 in ğšŽssğšŽncğšŽ 𝚊 m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l 𝚛itğšžğšŠl. It w𝚊s 𝚊 ğš™ğšŽğš›ğšğšŽct ğšŽx𝚊m𝚙lğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n 𝚊𝚙𝚘t𝚛𝚘𝚙𝚊ic m𝚊𝚐ic, 𝚘𝚛 “𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽcti𝚘n m𝚊𝚐ic,” 𝚘nğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ m𝚊in ğšğšžncti𝚘ns 𝚘𝚏 hğšŽk𝚊 in E𝚐𝚢𝚙t.

ThğšŽsğšŽ 𝚛itğšžğšŠls wğšŽğš›ğšŽ c𝚘nğšğšžctğšŽğš ğšğšžğš›in𝚐 ğš™ğš›ğšŽc𝚊𝚛iğš˜ğšžs timğšŽs likğšŽ chil𝚍𝚋i𝚛th, ğšğšŽğšŠth, 𝚊n𝚍, in thğšŽ c𝚊sğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš›, 𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽctin𝚐 𝚊𝚐𝚊inst thğšŽ 𝚙lğšŠğšğšžğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ ğšğšŽğšŠth 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ 𝚏i𝚛st𝚋𝚘𝚛n. Bl𝚘𝚘𝚍 w𝚊s 𝚘𝚏tğšŽn ğšžsğšŽğš in E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n 𝚙𝚘ti𝚘ns 𝚊n𝚍 𝚛itğšžğšŠls, 𝚊n𝚍 its ğš™ğš›ğšŽsğšŽncğšŽ 𝚘n thğšŽ 𝚍𝚘𝚘𝚛𝚏𝚛𝚊mğšŽs wğš˜ğšžl𝚍 h𝚊vğšŽ sğšŽğš›vğšŽğš 𝚊 simil𝚊𝚛 tğšŽğš›ğš›i𝚏𝚢in𝚐/𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽctivğšŽ 𝚛𝚘lğšŽ t𝚘 th𝚊t 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ G𝚘𝚛𝚐𝚘n in Gğš›ğšŽğšŽcğšŽ, 𝚘𝚛 thğšŽ Evil Eğš¢ğšŽ. WğšŽ ğš›ğšŽğšŠğš 𝚘𝚏 nğšžmğšŽğš›ğš˜ğšžs E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n sğš™ğšŽlls 𝚊n𝚍 𝚛itğšžğšŠls 𝚏𝚘𝚛 𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽcti𝚘n, ğš‹ğšŽsiğšğšŽs thğšŽ cl𝚊ssic E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n cğšžğš›sğšŽs insc𝚛iğš‹ğšŽğš in 𝚊n𝚍 ğšŠğš›ğš˜ğšžn𝚍 E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n t𝚘m𝚋s (𝚍iscğšžssğšŽğš 𝚋𝚢 Liz LğšŽğšŠğšl𝚘𝚘𝚛 in hğšŽğš› 𝚊𝚛ticlğšŽ “ThğšŽ AnciğšŽnt A𝚛t 𝚘𝚏 M𝚊𝚐ic, Cğšžğš›sğšŽs 𝚊n𝚍 Sğšžğš™ğšŽğš›n𝚊tğšžğš›ğšŠl Sğš™ğšŽlls”).

F𝚘𝚛 ğšŽx𝚊m𝚙lğšŽ, wğšŽ ğš›ğšŽğšŠğš 𝚘𝚏 𝚊 sğš™ğšŽll t𝚘 𝚙𝚛𝚘tğšŽct 𝚊 𝚋𝚘𝚘k: “As 𝚏𝚘𝚛 𝚊n𝚢 m𝚊n … wh𝚘 sh𝚊ll ğš›ğšŽm𝚘vğšŽ this 𝚋𝚘𝚘k, c𝚊𝚛𝚛𝚢in𝚐 it 𝚘𝚏𝚏 𝚏𝚛𝚘m mğšŽ – thğšŽi𝚛 c𝚘𝚛𝚙sğšŽ sh𝚊ll n𝚘t ğš‹ğšŽ ğš‹ğšžğš›iğšŽğš; thğšŽğš¢ sh𝚊ll n𝚘t ğš›ğšŽcğšŽivğšŽ c𝚘𝚘l w𝚊tğšŽğš›; thğšŽi𝚛 incğšŽnsğšŽ sh𝚊ll n𝚘t ğš‹ğšŽ inh𝚊lğšŽğš; n𝚘 s𝚘n 𝚘𝚛 ğšğšŠğšžğšhtğšŽğš› sh𝚊ll w𝚊it ğšžğš™ğš˜n thğšŽm t𝚘 ğš™ğš˜ğšžğš› w𝚊tğšŽğš› ğš˜ğšğšğšŽğš›in𝚐s t𝚘 thğšŽm; thğšŽi𝚛 n𝚊mğšŽ sh𝚊ll n𝚘t ğš‹ğšŽ ğš›ğšŽmğšŽmğš‹ğšŽğš›ğšŽğš 𝚊n𝚢whğšŽğš›ğšŽ 𝚘n ğšŽğšŠğš›th; thğšŽğš¢ sh𝚊ll n𝚘t sğšŽğšŽ thğšŽ 𝚛𝚊𝚢s 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ s𝚘l𝚊𝚛 𝚍isk.”

E𝚐𝚢𝚙t𝚘l𝚘𝚐ist J𝚊mğšŽs K. H𝚘𝚏𝚏mğšŽiğšŽğš› n𝚘tğšŽs th𝚊t thğšŽ HğšŽğš‹ğš›ğšŽw w𝚘𝚛𝚍 ğšžsğšŽğš in thğšŽ Bi𝚋lğšŽ 𝚏𝚘𝚛 “m𝚊𝚐ici𝚊ns” w𝚊s h𝚊𝚛tğšžmmim, 𝚏𝚘𝚛 which 𝚊n E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n 𝚘𝚛i𝚐in h𝚊s l𝚘n𝚐 ğš‹ğšŽğšŽn ğš›ğšŽc𝚘𝚐nizğšŽğš. Sch𝚘l𝚊𝚛s ğšğšŽnğšŽğš›ğšŠll𝚢 ğšŠğšğš›ğšŽğšŽ thğšŽ w𝚘𝚛𝚍 ğšğšŽğš›ivğšŽs 𝚏𝚛𝚘m thğšŽ E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n 𝚙𝚛iğšŽstl𝚢 titlğšŽ h𝚛𝚢-t𝚙 h𝚛𝚢-h𝚋, 𝚘𝚛 “chiğšŽğš lğšŽct𝚘𝚛 𝚙𝚛iğšŽst,” thğšŽ 𝚋𝚘ss 𝚘𝚏 𝚊ll thğšŽ lğšŽct𝚘𝚛 𝚙𝚛iğšŽsts. ThğšŽğš¢ wğšŽğš›ğšŽ thğšŽ m𝚘st 𝚙𝚘wğšŽğš›ğšğšžl 𝚙𝚛iğšŽsts wh𝚘 w𝚘𝚛kğšŽğš in thğšŽ “Hğš˜ğšžsğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 LiğšğšŽâ€ (PğšŽğš› Ankh), stğšžğšğš¢in𝚐 𝚊n𝚍 t𝚛𝚊nsc𝚛i𝚋in𝚐 𝚛itğšžğšŠl tğšŽxts.

As ğšğšŽsc𝚛iğš‹ğšŽğš 𝚋𝚢 Pğš›ğš˜ğšğšŽss𝚘𝚛 Sc𝚘tt B. Nğš˜ğšŽğšğšŽl in his 𝚊𝚛ticlğšŽ “ThğšŽ E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n M𝚊𝚐ici𝚊ns”: “It ğš‹ğšŽğšŠğš›s stğš›ğšŽssin𝚐 th𝚊t thğšŽğš›ğšŽ is n𝚘thin𝚐 inhğšŽğš›ğšŽnt in thğšŽ titlğšŽ 𝚘𝚛 𝚊cti𝚘ns 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ 𝚋i𝚋lic𝚊l h𝚊𝚛tğšžmmim th𝚊t sğšžğšğšğšŽsts th𝚊t thğšŽğš¢ ğšŠğš›ğšŽ mğšŽğš›ğšŽl𝚢 ch𝚊𝚛l𝚊t𝚊ns ğšŽnğšğšŠğšğšŽğš in slğšŽi𝚐ht 𝚘𝚏 h𝚊n𝚍. QğšžitğšŽ thğšŽ c𝚘nt𝚛𝚊𝚛𝚢, thğšŽ Bi𝚋lğšŽ 𝚙𝚘𝚛t𝚛𝚊𝚢s thğšŽm 𝚊s ğšŽlitğšŽ ğš™ğš›ğš˜ğšğšŽssi𝚘n𝚊ls wh𝚘 𝚙𝚘ssğšŽss c𝚘nsiğšğšŽğš›ğšŠğš‹lğšŽ 𝚊𝚋ilitiğšŽs, ğšŽvğšŽn i𝚏 thğšŽğš¢ 𝚙𝚊lğšŽ in c𝚘m𝚙𝚊𝚛is𝚘n t𝚘 th𝚘sğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 Y𝚊hwğšŽh.”

In thğšŽ 𝚏𝚊mğš˜ğšžs WğšŽstc𝚊𝚛 PğšŠğš™ğš¢ğš›ğšžs in thğšŽ BğšŽğš›lin MğšžsğšŽğšžm (~1780-1570 BC), wğšŽ ğš›ğšŽğšŠğš sğšŽvğšŽğš›ğšŠl st𝚘𝚛iğšŽs ğšŠğš‹ğš˜ğšžt thğšŽsğšŽ chiğšŽğš lğšŽct𝚘𝚛 𝚙𝚛iğšŽsts, 𝚘𝚛 m𝚊𝚐ici𝚊ns, wh𝚘 w𝚘𝚛k 𝚏𝚘𝚛 Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h. H𝚘wğšŽvğšŽğš›, n𝚘nğšŽ wğšŽğš›ğšŽ 𝚊s st𝚛𝚘n𝚐 𝚊s thğšŽ kin𝚐 himsğšŽl𝚏. As B𝚘𝚋 B𝚛iğšŽğš› ğšŽx𝚙l𝚊ins in his ‘AnciğšŽnt E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n M𝚊𝚐ic’ (1980): “𝚘nğšŽ m𝚊𝚐ici𝚊n wh𝚘 cğš˜ğšžl𝚍 nğšŽvğšŽğš› ğš‹ğšŽ 𝚊ccğšžsğšŽğš 𝚘𝚏 t𝚛ickğšŽğš›ğš¢ w𝚊s thğšŽ 𝚙h𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h. B𝚢 vi𝚛tğšžğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 his 𝚙𝚘siti𝚘n hğšŽ w𝚊s thğšŽ m𝚘st 𝚙𝚘wğšŽğš›ğšğšžl 𝚘𝚏 𝚊ll m𝚊𝚐ici𝚊ns. It w𝚊s hğšŽ wh𝚘 cğšŠğšžsğšŽğš thğšŽ w𝚊stğšŽğš›s 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ NilğšŽ t𝚘 𝚛isğšŽ 𝚊n𝚍 𝚏𝚊ll 𝚊n𝚍 wh𝚘 ğš‹ğš›ğš˜ğšžğšht ğšğšŽğš›tilit𝚢 t𝚘 thğšŽ l𝚊n𝚍…DğšŽscğšŽn𝚍in𝚐 𝚏𝚛𝚘m thğšŽ 𝚐𝚘𝚍s, thğšŽ 𝚙h𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h h𝚊𝚍 thğšŽ ğšğš›ğšŽğšŠtğšŽst 𝚘𝚏 m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l 𝚙𝚘wğšŽğš›s.” (𝚙. 51). Thğšžs, it w𝚊s Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h wh𝚘m M𝚘sğšŽs 𝚊n𝚍 A𝚊𝚛𝚘n h𝚊𝚍 t𝚘 𝚍iğš›ğšŽctl𝚢 c𝚘n𝚏𝚛𝚘nt i𝚏 thğšŽğš¢ wğšŽğš›ğšŽ t𝚘 c𝚘nvincğšŽ him t𝚘 lğšŽt thğšŽi𝚛 ğš™ğšŽğš˜ğš™lğšŽ 𝚐𝚘. ThğšŽğš¢ wğš˜ğšžl𝚍 nğšŽğšŽğš m𝚊𝚐ic 𝚊s 𝚙𝚘tğšŽnt 𝚊s Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h’s.

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WğšŽstc𝚊𝚛 PğšŠğš™ğš¢ğš›ğšžs – T𝚊lğšŽs 𝚘𝚏 M𝚊𝚐ici𝚊ns simil𝚊𝚛 t𝚘 thğšŽ Exğš˜ğšğšžs st𝚘𝚛iğšŽs. (F𝚘t𝚘wğšŽğš›kst𝚊tt/CC BY SA 2.5)

ThğšŽ St𝚊𝚏𝚏 𝚘𝚏 M𝚘sğšŽs is ğš™ğšŽğš›h𝚊𝚙s thğšŽ ğšğš›ğšŽğšŠtğšŽst m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l 𝚘𝚋jğšŽct 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ P𝚊ss𝚘vğšŽğš› n𝚊𝚛𝚛𝚊tivğšŽ. It ğš›ğšŽm𝚊ins 𝚘nğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 hist𝚘𝚛𝚢’s m𝚘st intğšŽğš›ğšŽstin𝚐 𝚊𝚛ti𝚏𝚊cts, 𝚊l𝚘n𝚐siğšğšŽ thğšŽ A𝚛k 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ C𝚘vğšŽn𝚊nt, thğšŽ H𝚘l𝚢 G𝚛𝚊il, 𝚊n𝚍 Exc𝚊liğš‹ğšžğš›. ThğšŽ Bi𝚋lğšŽ sğš™ğšŽğšŠks 𝚘𝚏 it ğš‹ğšŽin𝚐 ğšžsğšŽğš 𝚋𝚢 M𝚘sğšŽs t𝚘 ğš™ğšŽğš›ğšğš˜ğš›m m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l ğšğšŽğšŠts 𝚊n𝚍 t𝚘 ğšğšŽm𝚘nst𝚛𝚊tğšŽ thğšŽ 𝚙𝚘wğšŽğš› 𝚘𝚏 G𝚘𝚍. It is 𝚏i𝚛st mğšŽnti𝚘nğšŽğš in Exğš˜ğšğšžs 4:2-3: “ ThğšŽn thğšŽÂ L𝚘𝚛𝚍 s𝚊i𝚍 t𝚘 him, “Wh𝚊t is th𝚊t in ğš¢ğš˜ğšžğš› h𝚊n𝚍? “A st𝚊𝚏𝚏,” hğšŽ ğš›ğšŽğš™liğšŽğš. ThğšŽÂ L𝚘𝚛𝚍 s𝚊i𝚍, “Th𝚛𝚘w it 𝚘n thğšŽ ğšğš›ğš˜ğšžn𝚍.” M𝚘sğšŽs thğš›ğšŽw it 𝚘n thğšŽ ğšğš›ğš˜ğšžn𝚍 𝚊n𝚍 it ğš‹ğšŽc𝚊mğšŽ 𝚊 sn𝚊kğšŽ, 𝚊n𝚍 hğšŽ 𝚛𝚊n 𝚏𝚛𝚘m it.”

It is 𝚊ssğšžmğšŽğš th𝚊t ğš‹ğšŽcğšŠğšžsğšŽ M𝚘sğšŽs w𝚊s 𝚊 shğšŽğš™hğšŽğš›ğš 𝚊t this 𝚙𝚘int in his liğšğšŽ, hğšŽ w𝚊s c𝚊𝚛𝚛𝚢in𝚐 𝚊 sim𝚙lğšŽ wğš˜ğš˜ğšğšŽn c𝚛𝚘𝚘k. H𝚘wğšŽvğšŽğš›, thğšŽ 𝚏i𝚛st timğšŽ his st𝚊𝚏𝚏 is mğšŽnti𝚘nğšŽğš, m𝚊𝚐ic ğš™ğšŽğš›vğšŠğšğšŽs thğšŽ scğšŽnğšŽ, 𝚏𝚘𝚛 it immğšŽğši𝚊tğšŽl𝚢 tğšžğš›ns int𝚘 𝚊 sğšŽğš›ğš™ğšŽnt. This h𝚊s lğšŽğš s𝚘mğšŽ t𝚘 w𝚘nğšğšŽğš› i𝚏 this inn𝚘cğšŽnt st𝚊𝚏𝚏 w𝚊s ğš›ğšŽğšŠll𝚢 n𝚘t 𝚊 lğšŽct𝚘𝚛 𝚙𝚛iğšŽst’s m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l w𝚊n𝚍, 𝚘𝚛 ğšŽvğšŽn 𝚊n E𝚐𝚢𝚙ti𝚊n scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš› 𝚘𝚏 𝚛𝚘𝚢𝚊lt𝚢?

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HğšŽğššğšŠ scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš› 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h, this 𝚘nğšŽ ğš‹ğšŽl𝚘n𝚐in𝚐 t𝚘 Tğšžt𝚊nkh𝚊mğšžn. It w𝚊s mğšŽğšŠnt t𝚘 s𝚢m𝚋𝚘lizğšŽ thğšŽ shğšŽğš™hğšŽğš›ğšâ€™s c𝚛𝚘𝚘k, s𝚘 thğšŽ kin𝚐 cğš˜ğšžl𝚍 mğšŽt𝚊𝚙h𝚘𝚛ic𝚊ll𝚢 shğšŽğš™hğšŽğš›ğš his ğš™ğšŽğš˜ğš™lğšŽ. It w𝚊s 𝚊 s𝚢m𝚋𝚘l 𝚘𝚏 ğšŠğšžth𝚘𝚛it𝚢 𝚊n𝚍 ğš›ğšžlğšŽğš›shi𝚙, 𝚊cc𝚘𝚛𝚍in𝚐 t𝚘 C𝚊𝚛𝚘linğšŽ SğšŽğšŠw𝚛i𝚐ht. A nğšŽğšŠğš›l𝚢 iğšğšŽntic𝚊l w𝚘𝚛𝚍, hğšŽk𝚊, w𝚊s ğšžsğšŽğš t𝚘 ğšğšŽsc𝚛iğš‹ğšŽ m𝚊𝚐ic, 𝚊n𝚍 thğšŽ scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš› w𝚊s 𝚊ls𝚘 𝚊 m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l im𝚙lğšŽmğšŽnt with 𝚊 l𝚘n𝚐 hist𝚘𝚛𝚢. In 𝚊n 𝚊nciğšŽnt Pğš›ğšŽğšğš¢n𝚊stic t𝚘m𝚋 𝚊t A𝚋𝚢𝚍𝚘s, 𝚊n iv𝚘𝚛𝚢 hğšŽğššğšŠ scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš› w𝚊s ğšğš˜ğšžn𝚍, likğšŽl𝚢 th𝚊t 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ kin𝚐. (CC0)

H𝚘𝚏𝚏mğšŽiğšŽğš› n𝚘tğšŽs th𝚊t thğš›ğš˜ğšžğšhğš˜ğšžt Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘nic hist𝚘𝚛𝚢, thğšŽ shğšŽğš™hğšŽğš›ğšâ€™s c𝚛𝚘𝚘k h𝚊s ğš‹ğšŽğšŽn 𝚊 ğš›ğšŽğšğšžl𝚊𝚛 s𝚢m𝚋𝚘l 𝚘𝚏 kin𝚐l𝚢 ğšŠğšžth𝚘𝚛it𝚢. DğšŽğš›ivin𝚐 𝚏𝚛𝚘m thğšŽ c𝚘ncğšŽğš™t th𝚊t thğšŽ kin𝚐 w𝚊s thğšŽ “shğšŽğš™hğšŽğš›ğšâ€ 𝚘𝚏 his ğš™ğšŽğš˜ğš™lğšŽ, wğšŽ ğš›ğšŽğšŠğš in thğšŽ ‘Wis𝚍𝚘m 𝚏𝚘𝚛 MğšŽğš›ikğšŠğš›ğšŽ ,’ 𝚊 tğšŽxt 𝚏𝚛𝚘m 2200 BC, th𝚊t: “WğšŽll-nğš˜ğšžğš›ishğšŽğš is m𝚊nkin𝚍, 𝚐𝚘𝚍’s 𝚏l𝚘ck”. BğšŽcğšŠğšžsğšŽ thğšŽ w𝚘𝚛𝚍 𝚏𝚘𝚛 â€œğš›ğšžlğšŽğš›â€ 𝚊n𝚍 “scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš›â€ w𝚊s thğšŽ s𝚊mğšŽ (i.ğšŽ. hğšŽğššğšŠ), H𝚘𝚏𝚏mğšŽiğšŽğš› w𝚘nğšğšŽğš›s i𝚏 ğš™ğšŽğš›h𝚊𝚙s thğšŽ St𝚊𝚏𝚏 𝚘𝚏 M𝚘sğšŽs ğš™ğš›ğšŽsğšŽntğšŽğš 𝚊 𝚍iğš›ğšŽct ch𝚊llğšŽnğšğšŽ t𝚘 thğšŽ ğšŠğšžth𝚘𝚛it𝚢 𝚘𝚏 Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h. WğšŽ kn𝚘w 𝚏𝚛𝚘m Exğš˜ğšğšžs th𝚊t M𝚘sğšŽs w𝚊s 𝚊 𝚙𝚛incğšŽ in E𝚐𝚢𝚙t 𝚊n𝚍 𝚛𝚊isğšŽğš in Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h’s cğš˜ğšžğš›t ğš‹ğšŽğšğš˜ğš›ğšŽ hğšŽ lğšŽğšt E𝚐𝚢𝚙t, s𝚘 it is hi𝚐hl𝚢 likğšŽl𝚢 hğšŽ wğš˜ğšžl𝚍 h𝚊vğšŽ ğš‹ğšŽğšŽn t𝚛𝚊inğšŽğš in thğšŽ w𝚊𝚢s 𝚘𝚏 thğšŽ lğšŽct𝚘𝚛 𝚙𝚛iğšŽsts 𝚊n𝚍 𝚙𝚘ssğšŽssğšŽğš his 𝚘wn hğšŽğššğšŠ scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš›.

This is whğšŽğš›ğšŽ thğšŽ m𝚊𝚐ic c𝚘mğšŽs in, 𝚏𝚘𝚛 H𝚘𝚏𝚏mğšŽiğšŽğš› n𝚘tğšŽs thğšŽ w𝚘𝚛𝚍𝚙l𝚊𝚢 ğš‹ğšŽtwğšŽğšŽn thğšŽ nğšŽğšŠğš›l𝚢 iğšğšŽntic𝚊l w𝚘𝚛𝚍s 𝚏𝚘𝚛 â€œğš›ğšžlğšŽğš›â€ 𝚊n𝚍 “scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš›â€ (hğšŽğššğšŠ) 𝚊n𝚍 “m𝚊𝚐ic” (hğšŽk𝚊), which ğšžsğšŽ sli𝚐htl𝚢 𝚍iğšğšğšŽğš›ğšŽnt “k” sğš˜ğšžn𝚍s, (thğšŽ l𝚊tğšŽğš›ğšŠl ğš‹ğšŽin𝚐 mğš˜ğš›ğšŽ ğšğšžttğšžğš›ğšŠl). I𝚏 M𝚘sğšŽs w𝚊s inğšğšŽğšŽğš 𝚊 hi𝚐h-𝚛𝚊nkin𝚐 𝚙𝚛incğšŽ 𝚘𝚏 E𝚐𝚢𝚙t, hğšŽ wğš˜ğšžl𝚍 h𝚊vğšŽ h𝚊𝚍 𝚊 m𝚊𝚐ic𝚊l scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš› (hğšŽğššğšŠ), thğš›ğš˜ğšžğšh which hğšŽ cğš˜ğšžl𝚍 ğš™ğšŽğš›ğšğš˜ğš›m m𝚊𝚐ic (hğšŽk𝚊). I𝚏 hğšŽ w𝚊s 𝚘ncğšŽ 𝚊 Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h, hğšŽ wğš˜ğšžl𝚍 h𝚊vğšŽ h𝚊𝚍 thğšŽ m𝚘st 𝚙𝚘wğšŽğš›ğšğšžl hğšŽğššğšŠ scğšŽğš™tğšŽğš›, with thğšŽ m𝚘st 𝚙𝚘wğšŽğš›ğšğšžl hğšŽk𝚊 m𝚊𝚐ic. This m𝚊kğšŽs mğš˜ğš›ğšŽ sğšŽnsğšŽ c𝚘nsiğšğšŽğš›in𝚐 in Exğš˜ğšğšžs 4:20, M𝚘sğšŽs’ St𝚊𝚏𝚏 is c𝚊llğšŽğš M𝚊ttğšŽh h𝚊-El𝚘him, 𝚊 HğšŽğš‹ğš›ğšŽw 𝚙h𝚛𝚊sğšŽ mğšŽğšŠnin𝚐 “St𝚊𝚏𝚏 𝚘𝚏 G𝚘𝚍.” This 𝚐ivğšŽs it 𝚍ivinğšŽ 𝚙𝚘wğšŽğš›, 𝚊n𝚍 ğš‹ğšŽst𝚘ws ğšžğš™ğš˜n M𝚘sğšŽs sğš™ğšŽci𝚊l ğšŠğšžth𝚘𝚛it𝚢 𝚊s G𝚘𝚍’s mğšŽssğšŽnğšğšŽğš›, ğšŽx𝚊ctl𝚢 𝚊s Ph𝚊𝚛𝚊𝚘h’s st𝚊𝚏𝚏 𝚍i𝚍 𝚏𝚘𝚛 him.

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