On June 9, 1968, USS New Jersey (BB-62) approaches the Thacher Bridge in Panama as it crosses the Pacific Ocean to join the Pacific Fleet in Vietnam

USS New Jersey (BB-62)
Battleship USS New Jersey during operations off the coast of Vietnam, 1968.
History
United States
Named after
New Jersey stateOrder
July 1, 1939Shipyard1388x1086] USS New Jersey (BB-62) entering Pearl Harbor in 1968, before her tour in Southeast Asia. Note the red lei on the bow, as well as the empty Bofors gun tub, next
Philadelphia Naval ShipyardPlace the keel
Launching ceremony of USS New Jersey (BB-62) at Philadephia Naval Shipyard, Pennsylvania, December 7, 1942.

New Jersey was one of four Iowa -class battleships , designed in 1938 by the Preliminary Design Branch of the Office of Construction and Repair . The ship was launched on December 7, 1942 (the first anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor ) [5] and commissioned on May 23, 1943. She was the second ship of the Iowa class of The United States Navy [6] , sponsored by Carolyn Edison, wife of Charles Edison – Governor of New Jersey and former Secretary of the Navy. Colonel Carl F. Holden was the first captain of the New Jersey . [7]

New Jersey ‘s main artillery system includes nine 16″/50 caliber Mark 7 guns placed in three triple-barrel turrets, capable of firing 1,225 kg armor-piercing bullets at a distance of 42.6 km. The secondary artillery system includes 12 guns. Two 5″/38 caliber guns placed in 6 twin-barreled turrets, can hit targets at a distance of more than 16 km. With the advent of air power and the importance of maintaining superiority in the skies requiring the protection of the Allied Navy’s aircraft carriers, New Jersey was fitted with a series of systems. Oerlikon 20 mm anti-aircraft artillery system and Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft artillery system . When the ship was recommissioned in 1968, all 20 mm and 40 mm guns on the ship were removed before participating in the war in Vietnam. When recommissioned in 1982, the four 5″/38 caliber turrets were removed and four CIWS systems were installed to protect the ship from enemy missiles and aircraft, and eight four-barrel Tomahawk rocket launchers. and 8 Harpoon 4-barrel rocket launchers [8 ]

The deck is 53,000 ft² and is covered in teak . [9] Unlike the rest of the Iowa- class battleships , New Jersey was personally named by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to pay a political debt to then-New Jersey Governor Charles Edision. During his tenure at the Department of the Navy, Edision accelerated the construction of the Iowa -class battleships and the construction of one at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. [ten]

World War II (1943-1945)

Trials and operations with Admiral Spruance’s Fifth Fleet

After completing her armament, New Jersey and her crew participated in training in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean . On 7 January 1944, the ship transited the Panama Canal and arrived at Funafuti Island in the Ellice Islands . The ship arrived there on 22 January and was assigned to the Fifth Fleet , and three days later, joined Task Group 58.2 (TG 58.2) for the invasion of the Gilbert and Marshall Islands . New Jersey participated in protecting the carrier groups from Japanese air attacks while the carriers of TG 58.2 launched planes against Kwajalein Island and Eniwetok from 29 January to 2 January. route for the landings on January 31. [11]

Tập tin:A Japanese ship blows up under fire of the guns of TG 50.9.jpg
Battleship USS New Jersey (BB-62) firing her 5-inch (127 mm) guns at a Japanese transport during Operation Hailstone, 17 February 1944.

New Jersey was selected on February 4 as the flagship of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance , commander of the Fifth Fleet. The first campaign that New Jersey participated in was Operation Hailstone – an air attack/bombardment campaign against the Japanese fleet’s base at Truk , in the Carolines, within 2 days. This attack caused so much damage that the Japanese Navy was unable to prevent American operations in the Marshall Islands not long after. From 17 to 18 February, the task group sank 2 light cruisers , 4 destroyers , 3 troop transports, 2 submarine supply ships, 2 submarine chasers, 1 minesweeper, 1 aircraft ferries and 23 transport ships of all types, not including smaller ships. New Jersey sank a minesweeper and contributed to the sinking of other ships, including the destroyer Maikaze . The task group returned to the Marshalls on 19 February. [11]

From 17 March to 10 April, New Jersey operated with Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher ‘s flagship Lexington , participating in the air raid and bombardment of Mille Atoll , then rejoining Task Group 58.2 to participate in intercepting the convoy to the Palaus , and bombarding Woleai . [11] After returning to Majuro, Admiral Spruance transferred his flag to Indianapolis . [11] The next New Jersey operation , from 13 April to 4 May 1944, began and ended at Majuro. The ship participated in the protection of carrier groups in operations at Aitape , Tanahmerah Bay and Humboldt Bay , New Guinea on 22 April, and shelled supply ships and installations at Truk on 29 April. April 30.

USS New Jersey (BB-62) shelling Tinian, June 1944.

Following training sessions in preparation for the invasion of the Marianas , New Jersey put to sea on 6 June with Admiral Mitscher’s Task Force. Two days before the landings, New Jersey shot down a torpedo plane, and over the next two days, the ship participated in bombardment of Saipan and Tinian islands , to clear the way for the Marine landings on the 15th. June. [11] The Japanese quickly deployed forces to respond to the American attack. While the submarine teams silently monitored all activities of Japanese warships, Admiral Spruance’s force joined Admiral Mitscher’s force to wait for the Japanese. New Jersey protected the aircraft carrier fleet while American and Japanese pilots faced each other fiercely in the Battle of the Philippine Sea . The battle that day is also known as the “Turkey Shooting in the Marianas”, when the Japanese lost about 400 planes but only got about 12 American planes in return. This number of pilots and aircraft lost is equivalent to the disaster of the two aircraft carriers Taihō and Shōkaku sunk by the submarines Albacore and Cavalla , and the loss of the aircraft carrier Hiyō to aircraft from the light aircraft carrier Belleau Wood . In addition to the above losses, the Allied navy also damaged two more Japanese aircraft carriers and one battleship. The anti-aircraft fire of New Jersey and other American warships was almost impenetrable, two American warships were slightly damaged and they only lost 17 aircraft during the entire battle. [11]

Operating with Admiral Halsey’s Third Fleet

New Jersey ‘s final contributions to the Marianas campaign were shelling of Guam and the Palaus Islands , then returning to Pearl Harbor on 9 August. There, the ship became the flagship of Admiral William F. .Halsey Jr., and on August 24, became flagship of the Third Fleet of the United States Navy. On 30 August, New Jersey sailed from Pearl Harbor, and spent the next eight months stationed at Ulithi preparing to support Allied operations in the Philippines. [11]

In September, the ship participated in the shelling of Visayas and the southern Philippines, then Manila , Cavite , Panay , Negros , Leyte , and Cebu . In early October, New Jersey shelled Japanese air bases on Okinawa and Formosa in preparation for the invasion of Leyte on 20 October 1944. This campaign also saw the last major sortie. of the Imperial Japanese Navy . [11] The Japanese planned to use the Northern Fleet with its large aircraft force as bait to tow all of Halsey’s battleships, cruisers and aircraft carriers, which were on duty to protect the landing group. , out of Leyte. This allowed Kurita’s Center Force to easily advance straight into the San Benardino Strait . In the opening battle, aircraft from the aircraft carrier escorted by New Jersey inflicted heavy damage on the Japanese Central and Southern Forces, sinking the battleship Musashi on 23 October. The next day, Halsey fell into the Japanese trap when he sent all his warships to pursue Vice Admiral Jisaburō Ozawa ‘s Northern Fleet . Planes from Halsey’s force sank four aircraft carriers, a destroyer, and a cruiser from Ozawa, while New Jersey moved at full speed toward the greater threat in Samar – Central Forces Takeo Kurita’s mind. However, this force withdrew when New Jersey was present in the area. [11]

New Jersey ‘s anti-aircraft gunners were helplessly watching a kamikaze crash into the aircraft carrier Intrepid .

New Jersey rendezvoused with the main carrier force near San Benardino on 27 October 1944 to prepare for the attack on central and southern Luzon . 2 days later, this force was fiercely attacked by Than Phong planes . New Jersey ‘s anti-aircraft fire helped shoot down many Japanese planes, including one plane that was trying to crash into the Intrepid aircraft carrier, but was hit by Intrepid ‘s anti-aircraft fire , wounding 3 people. New Jersey sailor . On the 25th, three more aircraft were shot down, including one that crashed into Hancock ‘s flight deck , causing a small fire. Intrepid was attacked again. The ship shot down one Kamikaze, but another crashed despite being hit by New Jersey ‘s guns. New Jersey simultaneously shot down one aircraft that was charging at the aircraft carrier Cabot and another, which crashed into the port side of Cabot ‘s bow .

File:USS New Jersey in Typhoon Cobra.jpg
Battleship New Jersey sailing through rough seas, November 1944. The aircraft carrier moving ahead of New Jersey was Hancock .

On December 18, 1944, the warships of Task Force 38 suddenly entered Storm Cobra . A fleet consisting of 7 main aircraft carriers, 6 light aircraft carriers, 8 battleships, 15 cruisers and more than 50 destroyers, was surrounded by a storm while preparing to refuel. . [12] At that time, the fleet was operating in the Philippine Sea, about 500 km east of Luzon. This carrier group had just finished three-day sorties against Japanese airfields and prevented attacks by Japanese aircraft on American landing forces in Mindoro . This task force reunited with Colonel Jasper T. Acuff’s supply group on December 17 to refuel the entire ship and replace lost aircraft. [13]

Although the seas became increasingly rough, cyclonic disturbances near that area did not return any information about the upcoming storm. Each aircraft carrier of the Third Fleet has a weather officer on board, and the fleet’s flagship New Jersey also has an experienced weather officer – Lieutenant Colonel GF Kosco, a graduate of the Department of Meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at the same time studied hurricanes in the West Indies , however, no one aboard these ships was able to give the Third Fleet timely warning of the upcoming storm. . [13] On 18 December, a small but powerful storm overtook the Third Fleet’s positions, with many ships still in the middle of refueling. Many ships were located right in the center of the storm and were affected by very rough seas and strong gusts of wind. 3 destroyers – Hull , Monaghan and Spence – were capsized by the storm and sank with almost their entire crew, while 1 cruiser, 5 aircraft carriers and 3 destroyers suffered significant damage. tell. An estimated 790 officers and sailors were killed, and more than 80 others were injured. Three other aircraft carriers caught fire because the aircraft parked in the hangar were blown out of position by the storm, and exploded along with the accompanying ammunition. More than 140 aircraft belonging to many other ships were lost, damaged beyond repair or swept off the ship. However, like the battleships of TF-38, New Jersey skillfully weathered the storm without suffering any damage. The ship returned to Ulithi on Christmas Day to rendezvous with Admiral Chester Nimitz .

Operating with Battleship Squadron 7 with Admiral Badger

New Jersey operated for another period with the Third Fleet , from December 30, 1944 to January 25, 1945. The ship participated in protecting aircraft carrier groups conducting air strikes on Formosa , Okinawa , and Luzon. , Southeast Asia, Hong Kong , Swatow and Amoy . On 27 January at Ulithi, Admiral Halsey moved his flagship out of New Jersey and the ship was taken over by Rear Admiral Oscar C. Badger II – commander of Battleship Squadron 7. During the campaign in Iwo Jima , New Jersey protected the group of the aircraft carrier Essex on raids against the island from 19 to 21 January, and protected the fleet during the raid on Tokyo on 25 January. Two days later, the force participated in air strikes on the island of Okinawa.

Bottom: New Jersey (BB-62) and Above.png
Battleship New Jersey (BB-62) anchored in Tokyo Bay , December 1945. Behind New Jersey is the battleship Nagato of the Imperial Japanese Navy .

New Jersey participated in the Okinawa campaign from 14 March to 16 April. While the aircraft carriers were preparing for the air campaign against Honshū , New Jersey fought back against the air attacks, launching seaplanes to rescue downed pilots, protect the carrier group from suicide plane attacks, shooting down at least three aircraft and assisting in shooting down many others. On 24 March 1945, the ship was on a bombardment mission at Okinawa. In the final months of the war, New Jersey was refitted at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, and on 4 July sailed for San Pedro, Pearl Harbor, and Guam. On 14 August, the ship once again became the flagship of Admiral Spruance of the Fifth Fleet . New Jersey stayed briefly at Manila and Okinawa before sailing for Tokyo Bay on 17 September, as flagship of the Allied Naval Forces in Japanese waters, until being replaced by Iowa on 19 September. January 28, 1946. The ship also participated in Operation Magic Carpet , contributing to the repatriation of thousands of soldiers, and arrived at San Francisco on February 10, 1946. [11]

Post-World War II period (1946-1950)

New Jersey is being assigned to the New York Group, Atlantic Reserve Fleet after being decommissioned in 1948.

After completing West Coast duties and undergoing an upgrade in Puget Sound, New Jersey returned to Bayonne, New Jersey, on 23 May 1947 to attend a birthday party to celebrate the ship’s commissioning. 4 years old. The party was attended by New Jersey Governor Alfred E. Driscoll , former Governor Walter E. Edge and many other officials. From 7 June to 26 August New Jersey then participated in one of the first Training Fleets to cruise Northern European waters since the beginning of World War II. More than 2,000 cadets from the United States Naval Academy and Naval Reserve Officer Academy participated in the voyage under the command of Admiral Richard L. Connolly , Commander, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Fleets. The ship was later used as a reception venue in Oslo , where the ship was inspected by King Haakon VII of Norway on 2 July, and in Portsmouth, England . The fleet sailed west on 18 July to participate in exercises in the Caribbean and western Atlantic. [11]

After completing her duties in New York as flagship of Rear Admiral Heber H. McLean , Commander, Battleship Division I, from 12 September to 18 October, New Jersey was laid off. operates at the New York Naval Shipyard. The ship was then assigned to the New York group, part of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. [11]

Korean War (1950-1953)

In 1950, North Korea suddenly attacked South Korea , and the United States quickly intervened in the name of the United Nations . President Harry S. Truman was caught off guard and was quite surprised when he received information about the invasion [14] , but he quickly ordered US forces stationed in Japan to enter South Korea. . Truman sent troops with many tanks, aircraft and a large Navy force into South Korea to support South Korean forces. New Jersey was quickly put back into action to provide artillery support to South Korean and United Nations forces. The ship was recommissioned at Bayonne on 21 November 1950, with Captain David M. Tyree assigned as captain. New Jersey and its crew quickly underwent training in the Caribbean to prepare for missions in North Korea. The ship departed Norfolk, Virginia on April 16, 1951 and was in the East Sea of ​​Korea on May 17. Vice Admiral Harold M. Martin , commander of the Seventh Fleet , selected New Jersey as his flagship. him within the next 6 months. [11] [15]

Battleship New Jersey and cruiser Los Angeles off the coast of Korea, May 1951

New Jersey began the ship’s first bombardment since World War II in the Wonsan area on 20 May. During two operations in Korean waters, the ship served as a floating fortress. movement at sea. New Jersey actively shelled in support of the United Nations Forces, shelling to clear beaches and open roads, attacking supply lines, communication systems, and areas where Communist forces were stationed. New Jersey ‘s 16-inch (406 mm) guns gave the ship a fire support capability far beyond that of conventional ground guns, being able to change firing position continuously and change targets quickly without must worry about counterattacks and counter-attacks from the mainland. At the same time, the ship can also participate in protecting and escorting aircraft carriers. The ship’s only casualties were recorded at Wonsan, when one sailor was killed and two others were seriously injured when the ship was hit by coastal defense artillery. [11]

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